Minggu, 12 Mei 2019

The Caracteriztic of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Jual Culture Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Telp. 087731375234

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative, rod-shaped, asporogenous, and monoflagellated bacterium that has an incredible nutritional versatility. It is a rod about 1-5 µm long and 0.5-1.0 µm wide. P. aeruginosa is an obligate respirer, using aerobic respiration (with oxygen) as its optimal metabolism although can also respire anaerobically on nitrate or other alternative electron acceptors. P. aeruginosa can catabolize a wide range of organic molecules, including organic compounds such as benzoate. This, then, makes P. aeruginosa a very ubiquitous microorganism, for it has been found in environments such as soil, water, humans, animals, plants, sewage, and hospitals. In all oligotropic aquatic ecosystems, which contain high-dissolved oxygen content but low plant nutrients throughout, P.aeruginosa is the predominant inhabitant and this clearly makes it the most abundant organism on earth.
P.aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen. It is “opportunistic” because it seldom infects healthy individuals. Instead, it often colonizes immunocompromised patients, like those with cystic fibrosis, cancer, or AIDS. It is such a potent pathogen that firstly, it attacks up two thirds of the critically-ill hospitalized patients, and this usually portends more invasive diseases. Secondly, P.aeruginosa is a leading Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen at most medical centers, carrying a 40-60% mortality rate. Thirdly, it complicates 90% of cystic fibrosis deaths; and lastly, it is always listed as one of the top three most frequent Gram-negative pathogens and is linked to the worst visual diseases. Furthermore, P.aeruginosa is a very important soil bacterium that is capable of breaking down polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and making rhamnolipids, quinolones, hydrogen cyanide, phenazines, and lectins (5). It also exhibits intrinsic resistance to a lot of different types of chemotherapeutic agents and antibiotics, making it a very hard pathogen to eliminate.
Scanning Electron Micrograph of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).P. aeruginosa was first described as a distinct bacterial species at the end of the nineteenth century, after the development of sterile culture media by Pasteur. In 1882, the first scientific study on P. aeruginosa, entitled “On the blue and green coloration of bandages,” was published by a pharmacist named Carle Gessard. This study showed P. aeruginosa’s characteristic pigmentation: P. aeruginosa produced water-soluble pigments, which, on exposure to ultraviolet light, fluoresced blue-green light. This was later attributed to pyocyanine, a derivative of phenazine, and it also reflected the organism’s old names: Bacillus pyocyaneus, Bakterium aeruginosa, Pseudomonas polycolor, and Pseudomonas pyocyaneus. P. aeruginosa has many strains, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA01, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain UCBPP-PA14, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 2192. Most of these were isolated based on their distinctive grapelike odor of aminoacetophenone, pyocyanin production, and the colonies’ structure on agar media.
P. aeruginosa has the genome size of about 5.2 to 7 million base pairs (Mbp) with 65% Guanine + Cytosine content. It is a combination of variable accessory segments and a conserved core. The variable accessory genome is characterized by a set of genomic islands and islets from a primeval tRNA-integrated island type. The core genome consists of a low level of nucleotide divergence of 0.5% and a conserved synteny of genes, which means two or more genes, whether they are linked or not, are on the same chromosome.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 genome. From the Pseudomonas Genome Database P. aeruginosa has a single and supercoiled circular chromosome in the cytoplasm. It also carries a lot of chromosome-mobilizing plasmids that are very significant to the organism’s lifestyle as a pathogen. The plasmids, TEM, OXA, and PSE, for instance, are encoded for betalactamase production, which is necessary for its resistance to antibiotics, thus allowing P. aeruginosa to be a formidable pathogen.The two strains that have the complete genome sequence are Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14:
In 2000, a group of volunteer "Pseudomonas scientists", including those from the Washington PathoGenesis Corportaion and the Department of Biology of the University of California, San Diego, worked under the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Community Annotation Project (PseudoCAP) to publish the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. This was done because knowing the genomic sequence would provide new information about this bacterium as a pathogen and about its ecological versatility and genetic complexity. At 6,264,403 base pairs, its bacterial genome is the largest to ever be sequenced. It also contains 5,570 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), and thus it almost has the genetic complexity of simple eukaryotes, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using whole-genome-shotgun sampling, the complete 6.3 Mbp genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 is very much similar to the P. aeruginosa’s physical map, with only one major exception, which is the inversion of about a quarter of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 genome. This inversion comes from the homologous recombination of the rrnA and rrnB loci, and earlier studies on genomic sequence inversions of ribosomal DNA loci in S. typhimurium and E. coli suggest that this inversion might have adaptive significance.
The complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 is currently being done by Harvard Medical School scientists. The goal of this study is achieve a public data of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 genome. The shotgun-sequencing phase of the project was finished in 2005, yielding 6.54 Mbp of PA14 sequence. It is currently being compared to the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and preliminary results have shown that they are very similar but have several regions of marked differences, such as the insertion of the 107911bp in PA14, which is absent in PA01. Approximately, there is 96.3% of the DNA sequence of PAO1 is in PA14, and 92.4% of PA14 DNA sequence is in PA01 .
Protein F--Since P. aeruginosa is a Gram-negative microbe, it has an outer membrane which contains Protein F (OprF). OprF functions as a porin, allowing certain molecules and ions to come into the cells, and as a structural protein, maintaining the bacterial cell shape. Because OprF provides P. aeruginosa outer membrane with an exclusion limit of 500 Da, it lowers the permeability of the outer membrane, a property that is desired because it would decrease the intake of harmful substances into the cell and give P. aeruginosa a high resistance to antibiotics.
Flagellum and Pili--P. aeruginosa uses its single and polar flagellum to move around and to display chemotaxis to useful molecules, like sugars. Its strains either have a-type or b-type of flagella, a classification that is based primarily on the size and antigenicity of the flagellin subunit. The flagellum is very important during the early stages of infection, for it can attach to and invade tissues of the hosts. Similarly to its flagellum, P. aeruginosa pili contribute greatly to its ability to adhere to mucosal surfaces and epithelial cells. Specifically, it is the pili’s tip that is responsible for the adherence to the host cell surface. P. aeruginosa have N-methyl-phenyl-alanine (NMePhe) or type IV pili . The pili are characterized as long polar filaments made up of homopolymers from the protein pilin, which is encoded by the pilA gene. Overall, P. aeruginosa flagellum and pili have similar functionality (for attachment) and structure (both are filamentous structures on the surface of the cell), and their motility is controlled by RpoN, especially during initial attachment to the human host and under low nutrient conditions.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Scanning Electron Micrograph. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) When infecting its host, P. aeruginosa is starved for iron because iron deprivation of an infecting pathogen is the key part in the humans’ innate defense mechanism. To overcome this challenge, P. aeruginosa synthesizes two siderophores: pyochelin and pyoverdin. P. aeruginosa then secrets these sideophores to the exterior of the cell, where they bind tightly to iron and bring the iron back into the cell. Additionally, P. aeruginosa can also use iron from enterobactin, a special siderophore produced by E. coli for iron transport, to satisfy its iron need.
P. aeruginosa is a facultative aerobe; its preferred metabolism is respiration. It gains energy by transferring electrons from glucose, a reduced substrate, to oxygen, the final electron acceptor. The breakdown of glucose requires it to oxidize to gluconate in the periplasm, then it will be brought inside the inner membrane by a specific energy-dependent gluconate uptake system. Once inside, gluconate is phosphorylated to 6-P-gluconate, which will enter the central metabolism to produce energy for the cell. When P. aeruginosa is in anaerobic conditions, however, P. aeruginosa uses nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor. Under oxidative-stress conditions, P. aeruginosa synthesizes Fe- or Mn- containing superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes, which catalyze the very reactive O- to H2O2 and O2. It also detoxifies H2O2 to O2 and H2O by using catalase.
Since P. aeruginosa can live in both inanimate and human environments, it has been characterized as a “ubiquitous” microorganism. This versatility is made possible by a large number of enzymes that allow P. aeruginosa to use a diversity of substances as nutrients. Most impressively, P. aeruginosa can switch from growing on nonmucoid to mucoid environments, which comes with a large synthesis of alginate. In inanimate environment, P. aeruginosa is usually detected in water-reservoirs polluted by animals and humans, such as sewage and sinks inside and outside of hospitals. It is also found in swimming pools and whirlpools because the warm temperatures are favorable to its growth. Because it thrived in warm conditions, however, it was determined to be the culprit of the Hot Tub Rash, in which direct contact between the skin and the infected water from the tub will make the infected skin itchy and turn it a bumpy red color . In addition, P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes chronic infections in patients with cystic fibrosis and is the leading cause of death by Gram-negative bacteria (more under pathology).
Although most P. aeruginosa-plant interactions are detrimental to the plant, a recent study has found a P. aeruginosa strain that actually supports plant growth. This characteristic, along with the fact that P. aeruginosa can degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, suggests the future uses of P. aeruginosa for environmental detoxification of synthetic chemicals and pesticides and for industrial purposes. Psuedomonas aeruginosa is unique due to its ability to infect both humans and plants, one of the few organisms that can infect both kingdoms.
Five stages of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development. Courtesy of Peg Dirchx and David Davies. P. aeruginosa groups tend to form biofilms, which are complex bacterial communities that adhere to a variety of surfaces, including metals, plastics, medical implant materials, and tissue. Biofilms are characterized by “attached for survival” because once they are formed, they are very difficult to destroy. Depending on their locations, biofilms can either be beneficial and detrimental to the environment. For instance, the biofilms found on rocks and pebbles underwater of lakes and ponds are an important food source for many aquatic organisms. On the contrary, those that developed on the interiors of water pipes might cause clogging and corrosions.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonial growth pattern on a blood agar plate. From the Center of Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC).P. aeruginosa rarely causes disease in healthy humans. It is usually linked with patients whose immune system is compromised by diseases or trauma. It gains access to these patients’ tissues through the burns, for the burn victims, or through an underlying disease, like cystic fibrosis. First, P. aeruginosa adheres to tissue surfaces using its flagellum, pili, and exo-S; then, it replicates to create infectious critical mass; and lastly, it makes tissue damage using its virulence factors. Since the powerful exotoxins and endotoxins released by P. aeruginosa during bacteremias continue to infect the host even after P. aeruginosa has been killed off by antibiotics, acute diseases caused by P. aeruginosa tend to be chronic and life-threatening. Furthermore, with the exception of the cystic fibrosis strain, most P. aeruginosa strains that attack compromised patients tend to be nonmucoid. And even though a small amount of patients infected by P. aeruginosa developed severe sepsis with lesions with black centers, most patients exhibited no obvious pathological effects of the colonization.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disorder in Caucasians. With a mutation on chromosome 7, a CF lung cannot transport chloride (Cl-), sodium (Na+), and water from the basolateral to the secretory epithelia. This disruption in the salt and water balance in the cell results in the production of a thick mucus, which becomes the ideal home for potential pathogens. P. aeruginosa attacks CF patients via airway and once it is in, it uses its flagellum to go to the hypoxic zone, an oxygen-depleted environment. At this location, P. aeruginosa undergoes a transition from an aerobic to an anaerobic microbe and starts forming biofilms anaerobically. Once this is formed, the P. aeruginosa in this community can sense their population via quorum sensing, where they secret low molecular weight pheromones that enable them to communicate with each other. This gives them the ability to resist many defenses, including anti-Pseudomonas antibiotics such as ticarcillin, ceftazidime, tobramycin, and ciprofloxacin, because once the bacteria sense that their outer layer of biofilm is being destroyed, the inner layers will grow stronger to reestablish the community (24). P. aeruginosa is also resistant to many antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents due to their intrinsic resistance. This is caused by the low permeability to antibiotics of the outer membrane and by the production of β-lactamases against multidrug efflux pumps and β-lactam antibiotics.
P. aeruginosa communicates with other cells through quorum-sensing. This form of communication allows the cells to regulate gene production which results in control of certain cell functions. One of the enzymes responsible for quorum sensing is tyrosine phosphatase (TpbA). This enzyme relays extracellular quorum sensing signals to polysaccharide production and biofilm formation outside the cells. P. aeruginosa attaches to surfaces by way of biofilm production. Quorum-sensing can be a drug target to cure infections caused by P. aeruginosa. Quorum-quenching is used to blocks the signaling mechanism of quorum-sensing and prevents biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa. Yi-Hu Dong and his colleagues were able to prevent biofilm formation in mice under laboratory conditions.
P. aeruginosa secrets many virulent factors to colonize the cells of its host. For example, exotoxin A, the most toxic protein produced by P. aeruginosa, catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation to form ADP-ribosyl-EF-2, which inhibits the protein synthesis of the host’s cells. Moreover, elastase, an extracellular zinc protease, attacks eukaryotic proteins such as collagen and elastin and destroys the structural proteins of the cell. It also breaks down human immunoglobin and serum alpha proteins.
Furthermore, P. aeruginosa infects animals. In an experiment, intravenous injection of virulent P. aeruginosa was injected into mice and these animals usually died within 24-48 hours. When a smaller dose was injected, characteristic signs of infection such as weight loss, focal lesions in liver, spleen, and kidneys, followed by death within 3-10 days, would take place. P. aeruginosa has also been found to cause outbreaks of pneumonia in guinea pigs, and although it also attacks plants, not a lot of research has been done in this area.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an environmentally ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen. Epidermal infections often result from P. aeruginosa infiltrating through a human host’s first line of defenses, entering the body through the skin at the site of an open wound. P. aeruginosa is a common member of hospital bacterial communities where it can infect immunocompromised individuals including burn victims. P. aeruginosa is a source of bacteremia in burn victims [36]. Following severe skin damage, the prevalence of P. aeruginosa in the environment increases the probability of the organism accessing the bloodstream through the burn victim’s exposed deep epidermal tissue. Previous research of antibody-mediated host defenses indicates that on the fifth day after the initial burn, Fc receptor expression is reduced in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Without the Fc receptor, PMN chemotaxis is greatly reduced and the PMNs become less effective at preventing infection.
P. aeruginosa can be transmitted to a host via fomites, vectors, and hospital workers who are potential carriers for multiply-antibiotic-resistant strains of the pathogen. Furthermore, any P. aeruginosa already present on a burn victim’s skin before the injury can transform from an innocuous organism on the surface of the skin to a source of infection in the bloodstream and body tissues of the same individual.
The pili and flagella of P. aeruginosa play a vital role in the infection of burns and wounds. Controlled infection of burn wounds on animal and plant models with P. aeruginosa strains devoid of pili and flagella demonstrate a trend of decreased virulence. Without these morphological virulence factors, the bacteria exhibit a substantially decreased survival rate at the wound site and a decreased ability to disseminate within the host organism. The spread of P. aeruginosa within host organisms is also dependent on the microorganism’s elastase production and other protease mechanisms. Bacterial elastase and other bacterial proteases degrade the host’s proteins, including the structural proteins within membranes, disrupting the host’s physical barriers against the spread of infection. Elastase also assists P. aeruginosa in avoiding phagocytotic antibody-mediated cytotoxicity at the site of the wound by inhibiting monocyte chemotaxis.

Jual Aneka Culture Mikroba

Agrotekno Lab 
Telp. 087731375234

Absidia corymbifera FNCC
Aspergillus terreus FNCC
Acetobacter aceti FNCC
Atopobium vaginae ATCC BAA-55
Acetobacter xylinum FNCC
Aspergillus versicolor FNCC
Achomobachter xylosoxidans subsp. Xylosoxidans ATCC 27061
Aspergillus wentii FNCC
Acinetobacter baumanni ATCC 19606
Aureobasidium pullulans FNCC
Acinetobacter baumanni ATCC BAA-747
Acinetobacter Iwoffii ATCC 17925
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FNCC
Acinetobacter sp. ATCC 49137
Bacillus amylolyticus FNCC
Acinetobacter sp. ATCC 49139
Bacillus badius ATCC 14574
Acinetobacter sp. ATCC 49466
Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778
Acinetobacter sp. ATCC 9957
Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579
Actinomyces odontolyticus ATCC 17929
Bacillus cereus FNCC
Actinomyces viscosus ATCC 15987
Bacillus coagulans FNCC
Actinomyces viscosus ATCC 43146
Bacillus circulans ATCC 61
Aerococcus viridans ATCC 11563
Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 12759
Aerococcus viridans ATCC 700406
Bacillus macerans Schardinger FNCC
Aeromonas caviae ATCC 15468
Bacillus megaterium  ATCC 14581
Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 35654
Bacillus megaterium FNCC
Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 49140
Bacillus polymyxa FNCC
Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7965
Bacillus pumilus ATCC BAA-1434
Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966
Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 10149
Aeromonas salmonicida ATCC 33658
Bacillus stearothermophillus FNCC
Aeromonas veronii biogroup sobria ATCC 9071
Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633
Aggregatibacter aphrophilus ATCC 33389
Bacillus subtilis FNCC
Agrobacterium tumefaciens FNCC
Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 23745
Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 35655
Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285
Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. Faecalis ATCC 8750
Bacteroides ovatus ATCC 8483
Alcaligenes xylosoxydans subsp. denitrificans FNCC
Bacteroides ovatus ATCC BAA-1296
Alternaria alternata FNCC
Bacteroides ovatus ATCC BAA-1304
Alternaria alternata TX 8025
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ATCC 29741
Aneurinibacillus aneurinolyticus ATCC 11376
Bacteroides uniformis ATCC 8492
Arcanobacterium pyogenes ATCC 19411
Bacteroides ureolyticus ATCC 33387
Arcanobacterium pyogenes ATCC 49698
Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482
Aspergillus awamori FNCC
Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 15700
Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404
Bordetella brochiseptica ATCC 10580
Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 9642
Bordetella brochiseptica ATCC 4617
Aspergillus candidus FNCC
Bordetella pertussis ATCC 12742
Aspergillus flavipes FNCC
Bordetella pertussis ATCC 9340
Aspergillus flavus FNCC
Brevibacterium flavum FNCC
Aspergillus fumigatus FNCC
Brevibacterium lipolyticum FNCC
Aspergillus fumigatus KM 8001
Brevibscillus agri ATCC 51663
Aspergillus japonicus FNCC
Brevibscillus laterosporus ATCC 64
Aspergillus niger FNCC
Brevundimonas diminuta ATCC 11568
Aspergillus niveus FNCC
Brevundimonas diminuta ATCC 19146
Aspergillus ochraceus FNCC
Brochothrix thermosphacta ATCC 11509
Aspergillus orzaye ATCC 10124
Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 17765
Aspergillus oryzae FNCC
Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 25416
Aspergillus parasiticus FNCC
Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 25608
Aspergillus punicius FNCC
Aspergillus restrictus FNCC
Campylobacter coli ATCC 33559
Aspergillus sojae FNCC
Campylobacter coli ATCC 43478
Aspergillus tamarii FNCC
Campylobacter jejuni  ATCC 29428
Campylobacter jejuni subsp. Jejuni ATCC 33291
Clostridium histolyticum ATCC 19401
Campylobacter jejuni subsp. Jejuni ATCC 33292
Clostridium novyi ATCC 7659
Candida albicans ATCC 10231
Clostridium novyi Type A ATCC 19402
Candida albicans ATCC 14053
Clostridium septicum ATCC 12464
Candida albicans ATCC 2091
Clostridium sordellii ATCC 9714
Candida albicans ATCC 36232
Clostridium sporogenes ATCC 11437
Candida albicans ATCC 60193
Clostridium sporogenes ATCC 19404
Candida albicans ATCC 66027
Clostridium sporogenes ATCC 3584
Candida albicans ATCC 90028
Clostridium tertium ATCC 19405
Candida curvata FNCC
Corynebacterium diphtheriae ATCC 13812
Candida dubliniensis ATCC MYA-577
Corynebacterium glutanicum FNCC
Candida geochares ATCC 36852
Corynebacterium hoagii FNCC
Candida glabrata ATCC 15126
Corynebacterium jeikeium ATCC 43734
Candida glabrata ATCC 2001
Corynebacterium minutissimum ATCC 23348
Candida glabrata ATCC 66032
Corynebacterium pseudodiphhtheriticum ATCC 10700
Candida glabrata ATCC MYA-2950
Corynebacterium pseudodiphhtheriticum ATCC 10701
Candida guiliermondii ATCC 6260
Corynebacterium renale ATCC 19412
Candida kefyr ATCC 204093
Corynebacterium renale ATCC BAA-1785
Candida kefyr ATCC 2512
Corynebacterium striatum ATCC BAA-1293
Candida kefyr ATCC 66028
Corynebacterium urealyticum ATCC 43044
Candida kefyr FNCC
Corynebacterium xerosis ATCC 373
Candida krusei ATCC 14243
Cronobacter muytjensii ATCC 51329
Candida krusei ATCC 34135
Cryptococcus albidus ATCC 66030
Candida krusei FNCC
Cryptococcus albidus var. Albidus ATCC 10666
Candida lipolytica FNCC
Cryptococcus albidus var. Albidus ATCC 34140
Candida lusitaniae ATCC 34449
Cryptococcus curvatus FNCC
Candida lusitaniae ATCC 42720
Cryptococcus humicolus ATCC 9949
Candida lusitaniae ATCC 66035
Cryptococcus laurentii ATCC 18803
Candida norvegensis FNCC
Cryptococcus laurentii ATCC 66036
Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019
Cryptococcus laurentii ATCC 76483
Candida parapsilosis ATCC 34136
Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 14116
Candida parapsilosis ATCC 90018
Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 204092
Candida tropicalis ATCC 1369
Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 32045
Candida tropicalis ATCC 201380
Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 34877
Candida tropicalis ATCC 66029
Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 56991
Candida tropicalis ATCC 750
Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031
Candida tropicalis FNCC
Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 76484
Candida utilis ATCC 9950
Cryptococcus uniguttulatus ATCC 66033
Candida utilis FNCC
Curtobacterium pusillum ATCC 19096
Candida wicherhamii FNCC
Curvularia lunata FNCC
Cellulosimicrobium cellulans ATCC 27402
Curvularia sp. KM 8023
Chlamydomucor oryzae FNCC
Citrobacter braakii ATCC 10625
Debaryomyces hansenii FNCC
Citrobacter diversus KM 11012
Debaryomyces polymorphus FNCC
Citrobacter freundii ATCC 8090
Cladosporium cladosporioides FNCC
Edwardsiella tarda ATCC 15947
Clostridium acetobutylicum FNCC
Eggerthella lenta ATCC 43055
Clostridium barati ATCC 27638
Eikenella corrodens ATCC 23834
Clostridium difficile ATCC 43255
Eikenella corrodens ATCC BAA-1152
Clostridium difficile ATCC 700057
Elizabethkingia meningoseptica ATCC 13253
Clostridium difficile ATCC 9689
Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048
Clostridium difficile ATCC BAA-1870
Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 35028
Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 35029
Fusarium longipes FNCC
Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 49071
Fusarium moniliforme FNCC
Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 13047
Fusarium semitectum FNCC
Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 23355
Fusarium solani FNCC
Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 35030
Fusobacterium mortiferum ATCC 25557
Enterobacter gergoviae ATCC 33028
Fusobacterium mortiferum ATCC 9817
Enterobacter hormaechei ATCC 700323
Fusobacterium necrophorum ATCC 25286
Enterococcus avium ATCC 14025
Fusobacterium nucleatumum ATCC 10953
Enterococcus casseliflavus ATCC 700327
Fusobacterium nucleatumum subsp. Nucleatum ATCC 25586
Enterococcus durans ATCC 11576
Fusobacterium oxysporum ATCC 48112
Enterococcus durans ATCC 49135
Enterococcus durans ATCC 49479
Gardnerella vaginalis ATCC 14018
Enterococcus durans ATCC 6056
Gardnerella vaginalis ATCC 49145
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433
Gemella morbillorum ATCC 27824
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 10149
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49149
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12978
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299
Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 7080
Geomyces pannorum FNCC
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 35667
Geotrichum candidum ATCC 34614
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51559
Geotrichum candidum ATCC 10663
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 700221
Geotrichum candidum ATCC 28576
Enterococcus gallinarum ATCC 700425
Geotricum candidum FNCC
Enterococcus hirae ATCC 8043
Gordona rubropertinctus FNCC
Enterococcus raffinosus ATCC 49464
Gordona terrae FNCC
Enterococcus saccharolyticus ATCC 43076
Epidermophyton floccosum ATCC 52066
Haemophilus aphrophilus ATCC 19415
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae ATCC 19414
Haemophilus haemoglobinophilus ATCC 19416
Escherichia coli ATCC 10536
Haemophilus haemolyticus ATCC 33390
Escherichia coli ATCC 11229
Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 33930
Escherichia coli ATCC 11775
Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 35056
Escherichia coli ATCC 12014
Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 35540
Escherichia coli ATCC 13706
Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 49144
Escherichia coli ATCC 25992
Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 49247
Escherichia coli ATCC 29194
Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 49766
Escherichia coli ATCC 35218
Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 19418
Escherichia coli ATCC 35421
Haemophilus influenzae NCTC 8468
Escherichia coli ATCC 4157
Haemophilus influenzae Type a ATCC 9006
Escherichia coli ATCC 51446
Haemophilus influenzae Type b ATCC 10211
Escherichia coli ATCC 51755
Haemophilus influenzae Type b ATCC 33533
Escherichia coli ATCC 8739
Haemophilus influenzae Type c ATCC 9007
Esherichia coli FNCC
Haemophilus parahaemolyticus ATCC 10014
Eurotium amstelodami FNCC
Haemophilus parainfluenzae ATCC 7901
Eurotium chevalieri FNCC
Haemophilus paraphrophilus ATCC 49146
Eurotium rubrum FNCC
Haemophilus paraphrophilus ATCC 49917
Exiguobacterium aurantiacum ATCC 49676
Exophiala jeanselmei ATCC 10224
Issatchenkia orientalis ATCC 6258
Finegoldia magna ATCC 29328
Klebsiella pneumoniae C6
Fluoribacter bozemanae ATCC 33217
Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182
Fluoribacter dumoffii ATCC 33279
Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 43086
Fonsecaesa pedrosoi ATCC 28174
Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 49131
Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 700324
Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644
Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 8724
Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7646
Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Pneumoniae ATCC 10031
Listeria monocytogenes ATCC BAA-751
Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Pneumoniae ATCC 13882
Lysinibacillus sphaericus ATCC 4525
Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Pneumoniae ATCC 13883
Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Pneumoniae ATCC 27736
Malassezia furfur ATCC 14521
Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Pneumoniae ATCC 33495
Malassezia furfur ST 8036
Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Pneumoniae ATCC 35657
Microbacterium liquefaciens ATCC BAA-1819
Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Pneumoniae ATCC 700603
Microbacterium paraoxydans ATCC BAA-1818
Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Pneumoniae ATCC 9997
Microbacterium testaceum ATCC 15829
Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Pneumoniae ATCC BAA 1705
Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240
Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Pneumoniae ATCC BAA 1706
Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698
Kloeckera apiculata var. Apis ATCC 32857
Micrococcus luteus ATCC 49732
Kloeckera japonica ATCC 58370
Micrococcus lylae ATCC 27566
Kluyveromyces lactis FNCC
Micrococcus sp. ATCC 700405
Kluyveromyces marxianus FNCC
Microsporum canis ATCC 11621
Kluyveromyces thermotolerans FNCC
Monascus purpureus FNCC
Kockovaella thailandica FNCC
Moraxella catarrhalis ATCC 23246
Kocuria kristiane ATCC BAA-752
Moraxella catarrhalis ATCC 25238
Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 533
Moraxella catarrhalis ATCC 25240
Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341
Moraxella catarrhalis ATCC 49143
Kocuria rosea ATCC 186
Moraxella catarrhalis ATCC 8176
Moraxella osloensis ATCC 10973
Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314
Moraxella osloensis ATCC 19976
Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356
Morganella morganii FNCC
Lactobacillus acidophillus FNCC
Morganella morganii subsp. morganii ATCC 25830
Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287
Mucor plumbeus FNCC
Lactobacillus brevis FNCC
Mucor racemosus FNCC
Lactobacillus bulgaricus FNCC
Myroides odoratus ATCC 4651
Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393
Lactobacillus casei FNCC
Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 19424
Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC 12315
Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 31426
Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii FNCC
Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 35541
Lactobacillus fermentum FNCC
Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 43070
Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 19992
Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei ATCC BAA-52
Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49926
Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014
Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49981
Lactobacillus plantarum FNCC
Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 43069
Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus) FNCC
Neisseria lactamica ATCC 23970
Lactobacillus murinus FNCC
Neisseria lactamica ATCC 23971
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis FNCC
Neisseria lactamica ATCC 49142
Leclercia adecarboxylata ATCC 23216
Neisseria meningtidis serogroup C ATCC 13102
Leclercia adecarboxylata ATCC 700325
Neisseria meningtidis serogroup A ATCC 13077
Legionella pneumophila ATCC 33823
Neisseria meningtidis serogroup B ATCC 13090
Legionella pneumophila ATCC 33152
Neisseria meningtidis serogroup Y ATCC 35561
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 8293
Neisseria mucosa ATCC 19695
Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides FNCC
Neisseria perflava ATCC 14799
Lipomyces starkeyi FNCC
Neisseria sicca ATCC 29256
Listeria grayi ATCC 25401
Neisseria sicca ATCC 9913
Listeria innocua ATCC 33090
Neurospora sitophila FNCC
Listeria innocua VC 32293
Nigrospora oryzae FNCC
Nitrobacter winogradskyi FNCC
Propionibacterium acidiproprionici ATCC 25562
Nitrosomonas europaea FNCC
Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 11827
Nocardia asteroides CL 11014
Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 6919
Nocardia asteroides FNCC
Propionibacterium propionicus FNCC
Nocardia brasiliensis ATCC 19296
Proteus hauseri ATCC 13315
Nocardia brasiliensis ATCC 19297
Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12453
Nocardia erythropolis FNCC
Proteus mirabilis ATCC 25933
Nocardia farcinica ATCC 3308
Proteus mirabilis ATCC 29245
Nocardia farcinica FNCC
Proteus mirabilis ATCC 29906
Proteus mirabilis ATCC 35659
Ochrobactrum anthropi ATCC 49187
Proteus mirabilis ATCC 43071
Ochrobactrum anthropi ATCC 49687
Proteus mirabilis ATCC 7002
Ochrobactrum anthropi ATCC BAA-749
Proteus vulgaris ATCC 49132
Oligella ureolytica ATCC 43534
Proteus vulgaris ATCC 6380
Oligella urethralis ATCC 17960
Proteus vulgaris ATCC 8427
Prototheca wickerhamii ATCC 16529
Paenibacillus gordonae ATCC 29948
Providencia alcalifaciens ATCC 51902
Paenibacillus macerans ATCC 8509
Providencia stuartii ATCC 33672
Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 43865
Providencia stuartii ATCC 49809
Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 7070
Provotella melaninogenica ATCC 25845
Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 842
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145
Parabacteroides distasonis ATCC 8503
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442
Parabacteroides distasonis ATCC BAA-1295
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 17934
Parvimonas micra ATCC 33270
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853
Pasteurella aerogenes ATCC 27883
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 35032
Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida ATCC 43137
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 35422
Pediococcus acidilactici FNCC
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027
Pediococcus halophilus FNCC
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9721
Pediococcus pentosaceus ATCC 33314
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC BAA-1744
Pediococcus pentosaceus FNCC
Pseudomonas aeruginosa FNCC
Penicillium brasilianum FNCC
Pseudomonas cepacia FNCC
Penicillium cammembertii FNCC
Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525
Penicillium candidum FNCC
Pseudomonas fluorescens FNCC
Penicillium chrysogenum ATCC 10106
Pseudomonas putida ATCC 49128
Penicillium citrinum FNCC
Pseudomonas putida FNCC
Penicillium crustosum FNCC
Pseudomonas stutzeri ATCC 17588
Penicillium funiculosum FNCC
Penicillium glabrum FNCC
Ralstonia pickettii ATCC 49129
Penicillium oxalicum FNCC
Rhizomucor miehei FNCC
Penicillium pinophilum FNCC
Rhizomucor pusillus FNCC
Penicillium purpurogenum FNCC
Rhizopus microsporus FNCC
Penicillium roqueforti FNCC
Rhizopus oligosporus FNCC
Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus ATCC 29743
Rhizopus oryzae FNCC
Peptostreptococcus anaerobius ATCC 27337
Rhizopus stolonifer ATCC 14037
Phialophora verrucosa ATCC 28181
Rhodococcus equi ATCC 6939
Pichia burtonii FNCC
Rhodococcus equi FNCC
Pichia guilliermondii FNCC
Rhodococcus erythropolis FNCC
Pichia ohmeri FNCC
Rhodococcus fascians FNCC
Plesiomonas shigelloides ATCC 14029
Rhodococcus rhodochrous FNCC
Plesiomonas shigelloides ATCC 51903
Rhodosporidium toruloides FNCC
Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277
Rhodotorula glutinis ATCC 32765
Porphyromonas levii ATCC 29147
Rhodotorula glutinis FNCC
Sphingobacterium multivorum ATCC 35656
Saccharomyces bayanus FNCC
Sphingobacterium spiritivorum ATCC 33861
Saccharomyces caribergensis FNCC
Sphingomonas paucimobilis FNCC
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 4098
Sporidiobolus salmonicolor ATCC MYA-4550
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763
Sporothrix schenckii ATCC 10212
Saccharomyces cerevisiae FNCC
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29737
Saccharomyces diastaticus FNCC
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 35548
Saccharomyces kluyvery FNCC
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144
Saccharomyces pastorianus FNCC
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA-1026
Saccharomyces uvarum FNCC
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA-1708
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera FNCC
Staphylococcus aureus FNCC
Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis FNCC
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 35661
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 13311
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 12600
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Anatum ATCC 9270
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25178
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Choleraesuis ATCC 10708
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25904
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis ATCC 13076
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 33592
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Montevideo ATCC 8387
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 49444
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport ATCC 6962
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 49476
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi A ATCC 11511
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 51153
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B ATCC 8759
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 6538P
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi ATCC 6539
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 6538
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC BAA-976
Salmonella enterica sv Poona NCTC 4840
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC BAA-977
Salmonella FNCC
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923
Salmonella sp. Not Typhi group D BF-SD
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 29213
Salmonella sp. Serovar Abony NCTC 6017
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 29247
Salmonella tranoroa NCTC 10252
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 33591
Salmonella typhimurium FNCC
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 33862
Schizosaccharomyces pombe FNCC
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 43300
Scopulariopsis acremonium ATCC 58636
Staphylococcus epidermis ATCC 12228
Serovar typhimurium FNCC
Staphylococcus epidermis ATCC 14990
Serratia liquefaciens ATCC 27592
Staphylococcus epidermis ATCC 29887
Serratia marcescens ATCC 13880
Staphylococcus epidermis ATCC 49134
Serratia marcescens ATCC 14756
Staphylococcus epidermis ATCC 49461
Serratia marcescens ATCC 8100
Staphylococcus epidermis ATCC 700296
Serratia odorifera ATCC 33077
Staphylococcus epidermis FNCC
Shewanella putrefaciens ATCC 49138
Staphylococcus haemolyticus ATCC 29970
Shewanella putrefaciens ATCC 8071
Staphylococcus hominis ATCC 27844
Shigella sonei group D ATCC 11060
Staphylococcus lentus ATCC 700403
Shigella sonei group D ATCC 25931
Staphylococcus lugdunensis ATCC 700328
Shigella sonei group D ATCC 9290
Staphylococcus rafinolactis FNCC
Shigella boydii serovar 1 group C ATCC 9207
Staphylococcus saprophyticus ATCC 15305
Shigella dysenteriae group A ATCC 13313
Staphylococcus saprophyticus ATCC 35552
Shigella flexneri serovar 2b group B ATCC 12022
Staphylococcus saprophyticus ATCC 43867
Staphylococcus saprophyticus ATCC 49453
Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 6303
Staphylococcus saprophyticus ATCC 49907
Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 6305
Staphylococcus saprophyticus ATCC BAA-750
Streptococcus pneumoniae CL 811
Staphylococcus sciuri subsp. sciuri ATCC 29060
Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615
Staphylococcus sciuri subsp. sciuri ATCC 29061
Streptococcus pyogenes group A ATCC 12384
Staphylococcus simulans ATCC 27851
Streptococcus pyogenes group A ATCC 21547
Staphylococcus thermophillus FNCC
Streptococcus salivarius serotype II ATCC 13419
Staphylococcus xylosus ATCC 29967
Streptococcus sanguinis Type 1 ATCC 10556
Staphylococcus xylosus ATCC 29971
Streptococcus sp. Gp D ATCC 9854
Staphylococcus xylosus ATCC 35663
Streptococcus sp. group B ATCC 12401
Staphylococcus xylosus ATCC 49148
Streptococcus sp. group D ATCC 27284
Staphylococcus xylosus ATCC 700404
Streptococcus sp. Type 2 group F ATCC 12392
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13637
Streptococcus thermophilus ATCC 19258
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 17666
Streptococcus uberis ATCC 700407
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 49130
Streptococcus uberis ATCC 9927
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 51331
Streptomyces albus ATCC 17900
Streptococcus agalactiae group B ATCC 12386
Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus ATCC 10137
Streptococcus agalactiae group B ATCC 13813
Streptococcus agalactiae group B CL 810
Tatlockia micdadei ATCC 33204
Streptomyces ambofaciens FNCC
Trichophyton equinum ATCC 12544
Streptococcus bovis ATCC 33317
Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 9533
Streptococcus criceti ATCC 19642
Trichophyton robrum ATCC 28188
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis group G ATCC 12394
Trichophyton tonsurans ATCC 28942
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis ATCC 35666
Trichophyton verrucosum ATCC 42898
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis ATCC 9542
Trichophyton cultaneum ATCC 28592
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis group C ATCC 43079
Trichophyton mucoides ATCC 204094
Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus group C ATCC 700400
Streptococcus gallolyticus ATCC 49147
Veillonella parvula ATCC 10790
Streptococcus gallolyticus ATCC 9809
Veillonella parvula ATCC 17745
Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus ATCC 49475
Vibrio cholerae serotype Inaba ATCC 9459
Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175
Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802
Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668
Vibrio vulnificus ATCC 27562
Streptococcus oralis ATCC 35037
Virgibacillus pantothenticus ATCC 14576
Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811
Streptococcus pasteurianus ATCC 49133
Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 9773
Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 27336
Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 23715
Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49136
Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica ATCC 9610
Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49150
Yersinia kristensenii ATCC 33639
Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619
Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 6301
Zygosaccharomyces bailii ATCC MYA-4549

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